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Sultan Qaboos University





Fluid Mechanics (CIVL 4046)

Spring 2008

Instructor:           Dr. Ahmad Sana

Time & Place:     Sat. 11:00-11:50 (CMT/C14); Mon. 11:00-11:50 (CMT/C14);

                             Tue. 16:15-18:05 (Sec.11, Lab.); Wed. 08:00-09:50 (Sec. 12, Lab.)   

Office Hours:      Sun. 10:00-11:50 and Tue. 10:00-11:50

Office:                 Room # 2078, College of Engineering Western Building

Telephone:          Ext. 2524

Email:                  sana@squ.edu.om

Homepage:         http://ahmadsana.tripod.com 



       I.      Course Description


CIVL 4046      FLUID MECHANICS (3 Credits)

This basic course provides the student with a working knowledge of the fundamental principles governing fluid mechanics and fluid flow. Lectures covering the properties of fluids, fluid statics, basic flow concepts, similitude, dimensional analysis, ideal fluid flow and fluid measurements. These lectures are supplemented by laboratory studies.


    II.      Required Background or Experience

 Prerequisites by course:

CIVL 3216


Prerequisites by topic:

1.      Fundamentals of algebra and arithmetic.

2.      Basic principles of physics.

3.      Principles of basic engineering mechanics.




 III.      Course Objectives


The objectives of this course are to give the student a fundamental knowledge of:

1.      Fluid properties [Obj. A, C].

2.      Fluid statics [Obj. A, C].

3.      Fluid kinematics [Obj. A, C].

4.      Momentum principle [Obj. A].

5.      Energy principle [Obj. A, C].

6.      Dimensional analysis and similitude [Obj. A].

7.      Flow in conduits [Obj. A, C].


Civil Engineering Program Educational Objectives


Objective A.  Provide the required knowledge and skills to solve Civil Engineering problems.


Objective B.  Expand and enhance the abilities related to the responsibilities of the Civil Engineer towards the profession and society.


Objective C.  Develop the abilities to stay current with new developments.


  IV.      Expected Outcomes

Students will be expected to develop these skills/understanding upon the successful completion of this course:

1.        A fundamental knowledge of various fluid properties and their measurements [a, b, k].

2.        Ability to calculate and measure hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surfaces [a, b, e, k].

3.        Ability to apply Reynolds transport theorem to fluid flow phenomena [a].

4.        Ability to apply continuity equation to steady and unsteady flow phenomena [a, e].

5.        Ability to apply Bernoulli's equation to steady flow phenomena [a, b, e, k].

6.        Ability to apply momentum equation to determine forces in a flowing fluid [a, e].

7.        Ability to calculate and measure the energy in a flowing fluid [a, b, e, k].

8.        Fundamental knowledge of the dimensional analysis and similitude to carry out physical model studies [a, e].

9.        Ability to calculate and measure the discharge carrying capacity and friction loss in the conduits under laminar and turbulent flow conditions [a, b, e, k].


ABET Program Outcomes and Assessment (Criterion 3)


(a) An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering.

(b) An  ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as an ability to analyze and interpret data.

(c) An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.

(d) An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.

(e)  An  ability to Identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

(f) An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.

(g) An ability to communicate effectively.

(h) The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context.

(i)  A  recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning.

(j)  The knowledge of contemporary issues.

(k) An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.

     V.      Course Contents


The following topics will be covered in this course:

  1. Fluid properties: Density, specific weight, specific gravity, ideal gas law, viscosity, vapor pressure, surface tension.
  2. Fluid statics: Pressure at a point, pressure variation in a stationary fluid, measurement of pressure, hydrostatic force on plane and curved surfaces, buoyancy.
  3. Fluid kinematics: The velocity field, Eulerian and Lagrangian representations, streamlines, streaklines and pathlines, Reynolds transport theorem.
  4. Fluid dynamics: Continuity, momentum, moment of momentum and energy equations, viscous flow in pipes, laminar and turbulent flow, major and minor losses, measurement of velocity.
  5. Dimensional analysis and similitude: Buckingham Pi theorem, Modeling and similitude, some typical model studies.
  6. Flow through conduits: shear stress in a pipe, laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, friction factor and head loss.


  VI.      Textbook(s) and Readings


Fluid Mechanics- Fundamentals and Applications by Cengel and Cimbala, 1st Ed., McGraw-Hill, 2006.


      Additional resources include:

  • Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Crowe, Elger and Roberson, 7th Ed., John Wiley, 1997.
  • Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics by Munson, Young and Okiishi, 2nd Ed., 1990.


VII.      Minimum Student Materials

Text, class handouts, engineering calculator, and an access to personal computers.


VIII.      Minimum College Facilities

Classroom with whiteboard and projection facilities, Hydraulics laboratory, library, computer facilities.


  IX.      Instructional Methods

1.      Lectures.

2.      Teamwork solving problem tutorials.

3.      Experiments

4.      Homework.

5.      Reading assignments.


     X.      Evaluation of Outcomes

Evaluation will be based on the following:

1.      Assignments                                               [5%]

2.      Quizzes                                                      [15%]

3.      Tutorial exercises and experiments              [15%]

4.      Term project                                              [10%]

5.      Mid-Term Examination                               [15%]

6.      Final examination                                        [40%]


  XI.      Explanation of grading system


Assignments (5%): There will be approximately five assignments. Whenever an assignment is given, you will have one week to complete it and submit. Group participation in solving an assignment problem is encouraged, however, you must turn in your own assignment. Late assignments would be accepted only with prior approval from the instructor.

Quizzes (15%): There will be approximately three quizzes. They will consist of multiple-choice questions and brief definitions. The students must be prepared and revise the material covered in the preceding lectures before coming to the class.

Tutorial exercises and experiments (20%): There will be approximately six experiments. Please bring your textbook and calculator every time you come to attend the laboratory or tutorial. The whole class will be divided into groups. For each experiment or tutorial exercise, a written letter report is required by each group to get full consideration.

Term Project (10%): Each group will work on the technical and architectural details of a project. All the groups will present their project reports, final drawings and models in week 13.

Mid-term examination (15%): This will be a closed book examination, covering all the theory, problems, tutorial exercises and laboratory experiments completed prior to it.

Final examination (40%): The final examination will cover the whole course contents completed prior to it.

Extra credit (up to 5%): The students may receive up to 5% of their grade in extra credit by attending seminars and professional society meetings held in the civil engineering department or relevant conferences. In order to get this credit write down an essay describing your contributions to the engineering society work and seminar attendances, and get it endorsed by the Engineering Society Advisor of the department.


XII.      Professional Component Contribution

CIVL 4046 is a fundamental departmental required course that deals with the basics of fluid mechanics. Two thirds of the contents of this three-credit course consist of engineering science.  The remaining one third consists of analysis of engineering fluid systems and design.


XIII.      Detailed schedule of the course























Fluid properties

















Fluid statics

















Fluid kinematics

















Fluid dynamics

















Dimensional analysis and similitude

















Flow through conduits


















Quiz and Exam. Schedule


Quiz 1: Monday, February 25, 2008

Quiz 2: Monday, March 24, 2008

Quiz 3: Monday, April 21, 2008

Term Project Presentations:             Tuesday, April 29, 2008 (Sec. 11)

                                                            Wednesday, April 30, 2008 (Sec. 12)


Mid-Term Exam.: Monday, April 7, 2008


Last update: 1/2/08